Optical communications networks are enhancing a vital role such as there is high demand for capacity links. DWDM which designates dense wavelength division multiplexing is widely deployed at the core networks to distribute high capacity convey systems. Optical components such as tunable filters, termination contrivances, optical amplifiers transceivers, and integrate-drop multiplexers are becoming more trustworthy and affordable. Access network and metropolitan area networks are increasingly built with optical technologies to surmount the electronic blockage at network edges. Subsystems and incipient components for very high-speed optical networks offer an incipient design options. Free-space optical communication has been arranged in space, while terrestrial forms are naturally inhibited by weather, geography and the availability of light.